Kinburn Spit – Regional Landscape Park
The Kinburn Spit regional landscape park is a unique natural-territorial complex of ancient river plain sandy and seaside landscapes unique to Europe, the habitat of many species of plants, mushrooms, animals, among which there are those that are not found anywhere else in the world. priority protection sites that arise the most valuable environmental areas, among them: “Pokrovskaya Spit”, the tract “Green Kuchugury”, “Kovalevskaya Saga” and others.
In recent decades, Kinburn Spit has become attractive and popular for tourists and vacationers. Larina Dacha is one of the best recreation centers with home cooking in the village of Pokrovka. The natural conditions of Kinburn are favorable for beach bathing, mud treatment, fishing, mushroom picking, as well as for scientific and sports tourism. But, despite this, the Kinburn ecosystem is very vulnerable and, if anthropogenic pressure increases, it can become unsuitable for life not only for its inhabitants – representatives of flora and fauna, but also for the local population.
Every year, in June, the traditional ecological regatta “Kinbourg Spit Cup” starts during the Ukrainian Championship among cruising-racing yachts to the shores of the Kinburn Peninsula. The ecological regatta is the most massive in Ukraine, and at the same time it is unique, because its participants compete in several types of water bodies at once: on the river, estuary and at sea.
The Kinburn arrow is located in the western part of the peninsula opposite Ochakov. In its narrowest place, one foot can become in the sea, the other in the estuary. This is an important link in the coastal ecocorridor, a place of mass nesting and concentration of birds during seasonal migrations. The lands support the existence of many rare species under protection – puffs, common curlew and medium, sandpiper, magpie and others. On the spire of the Kinburn Spit, the multi-species Martynov colony is located. The total number of the nesting complex here exceeds 1 thousand pairs. The Kinburn arrow is a place of mass growth of males, the colorful blooming of which in spring gives the territory an extremely picturesque look.
Sand hills, or dunes, are sand hills inspired by the wind. The huge amounts of sand that have accumulated at the mouth of the Dnieper since the last glaciation and continue to accumulate now, the wind picks up and carries a considerable distance from the sea coast inland. Rows of dunes are oriented along the coast. Strong winds reign here, capable of applying sand hills up to half a meter high in a day. Over time, the dunes capture new spaces. With a strong wind, sand drifts all in a row. The only thing that effectively inhibits the transfer of sand is the vegetation cover.
The tract “Duck” or “Wolf’s den”
The wolf’s den in the broad sense is the place of withdrawal of wolf offspring. Usually it is located in a permanent area, among cozy sections of forest and near water bodies that are rarely visited by people. The food in the vicinity should be enough to feed the mother with a brood. When feeding puppies, wolves can use several inaccessible corners, transferring babies from one to another. It is these protective conditions that have developed in the Utinaya tract, located among sandy hills surrounded by old pine plantations.
The section of the old forest in the Utinaya tract is extremely important for maintaining the white-tailed eagle population. In cold winters, several hundred of these birds of prey fly here for the night. They get food on the coast, in places that rarely freeze. It is there, in a difficult period, that the mute swans, mallards, and black monks take refuge. But in the spring, one pair of eagles always remains here to breed. This representative of avifauna belongs to globally vulnerable species, needs protection on a global scale.
At the Kovalevka farm (northwestern outskirts of the village of Pokrovka) there is an Alder forest, which occupies the bottom of the hollow, which was formed on the site of the old Dnieper and covers an area of about 10 hectares.
Olshanik is a fairly flooded megatrophic swamp with sedge dominance. Such island forests, in contrast to artificially created ones that are of particular importance for the conservation of the biodiversity of the territory. The alder grove near the Kovalevka farm is one of the largest on the Lower Dnieper and is second only to the Volyzhyny forest. Adhesive alder clusters are divorced from their main distribution sites for hundreds of kilometers.
The tract “Ossetian”
In the 60-80s of the last century, there was one of the most productive fishing mills in Kinburn, which specialized in sturgeon fishing and black caviar. The basis of this fishery was such passing species as Russian sturgeon and stellate stellate sturgeon. Often beluga, the largest fish of the Black Sea, also fell into the fixed nets and reached a ton of weight. Now they are all endangered and listed in the Red Book of Ukraine, the IUCN list, the Berne and Bonn Conventions, CITES and the European Red List.
Recently, on the site of the fishing camp, one of the borders of the Kinburn Spit regional landscape park was equipped. It blocks access to the young section of sand and shell sediments, intensively growing by the sea towards the island of Dovgy. This narrow strip of land, together with the adjacent waters of the Black Sea and the Yagorlitsky Gulf, is a place of mass congestion of birds, in particular, puff and pink pelican. Magpie, a shoemaker, a sandpiper and a little tern periodically nest here. All these species are under state protection. It is worth noting that the Ossetian tract (or this border) is a convenient crossing to the island of Tendra Spit, which is separated from the Kinburn coast by a dozen and a half kilometers. From here it is clearly visible in sunny weather.
Volozhin Forest is the largest natural forest in the lower reaches of the Dnieper. Together with the lake and virgin steppe plots, its area reaches 203 hectares. This territory belongs to the Black Sea Biosphere Reserve. The huge oak tree, which miraculously survived on the Liman coast, is almost the oldest tree in Nikolayevshchina. A peculiar feature of the natural surroundings of the Kinburn Spit is small oak-birch, aspen and alder groves scattered across the lowlands among the sandy spaces of the peninsula. These are the remains of the famous Gilea – a country of forests in the lower Dnieper, which, according to the descriptions of the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, was here in the 5th century BC. Smelling bump, blackberry, forest rank, double-leafed snowdrop, pleasant violet, Gayovaya boogila, common blackberry, etc.
Among the local tree and shrub species there are a number of endemic or locally distributed species, in particular, Dnieper birch. Favorable conditions have developed here for the development of a significant number of cap mushrooms – cep, boletus, boletus boletus, late and granular butter. The latter, incidentally, are uncharacteristic of the dry Black Sea steppe. Unlike artificially created forest stands, this natural massif is of exceptional importance for the conservation of the biodiversity of the territory. In particular, a record number of amphibian and reptile species for the steppe zone of Ukraine lives here. Among them are copperfish, steppe viper, Sarmatian and Caspian snake, listed in the Red Book of Ukraine and protected by lists of the Berne Convention.